B. Geographic information systems and problems of environmental management.

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B. Geographic information systems and problems of environmental management.


Cartography: subject and concept. Abstract

Subject cartography. The concept of cartographic works and cartography

Cartography – the science of reflection and study of spatial distribution and relationships of natural and social phenomena, as well as their changes over time through figurative models (cartographic images), which reproduce certain aspects of reality.

Cartography is a science that deals with the study, development and creation of geographical maps. It is divided into a number of scientific and technical disciplines: cartography, mathematical cartography, compilation, map design, and map publishing.

These disciplines are closely related in the general set of issues for mapping, but each of them has its own characteristics.

Cartography – studies geographical maps, their elements, properties, types and development, as well as methods of using maps.

Mathematical cartography considers mathematical ways of mapping a spheroidal earth’s surface on a plane. In practice, the question is to subtract and construct on paper a cartographic grid that corresponds to a grid of parallels and meridians. In the future, when compiling maps, the cartographic grid is the basis for the correct placement of the elements of the map. Cartographic grids are different in appearance and in their properties.

Mapping, not to mention topographic surveys, is to fill the cartographic grid with elements of the content of the map, which are taken from cartographic materials. This process should be understood as the mechanical transfer of content from the finished map to another cartographic grid. In order to make a new map, you have to solve a difficult problem of correct display of the earth’s surface in accordance with the requirements of this map and the scale determines the nature and completeness of its content, symbols, methods and methods of assembly work … The result of assembly work is a map drawn by hand, or with the help of a computer, in certain symbols, which is called the publishing original of the map.

The design of the cards consists in the production of the author’s original card, which is an exact copy of the publishing original and made with a clean drawing in strict accordance with the accepted symbols.

Card publishing is to reproduce the original card and obtain the required number of prints of the sheets of the card in full accordance with the accepted conditions of its aesthetic design.

Cartography is closely related to geography, geodesy, aerial photography (photogrammetry), astronomy and gravimetry. As a result of astronomical, gravimetric and geodetic works, cartographers obtain data on the shape and size of the Earth, on the geographical position of individual (reference) points on the earth’s surface. These data are needed to build the mathematical basis of the maps.

Different types of surveys give large-scale maps, which are the source material for compiling other maps.

General concepts of maps

A map is a reduced conditional image of the earth’s surface on a plane, built on a mathematical basis and reproducing the location, state and relationship of various phenomena of nature and society.

This definition of the map follows from the content of the map itself and the methods of its creation.

As is known from the course of geodesy, the Earth has the shape of a geoid and is practically taken to be an ellipsoid of rotation, very close in size and shape to the geoid.

When imaging on the plane of a small area of ​​the earth’s surface (within 20×20 km), the curvature of this surface can be neglected. In this case, all the lines of the plot are measured on the ground, reduced to the accepted scale and applied to paper, tracing paper, mylar, without applying any corrections for the curvature of the Earth. This drawing is called a plan. Accordingly, in terms of scale in different places and in different directions is the same. On the maps where the whole earth’s surface or significant parts of it are reproduced, the curvature of the Earth can no longer be neglected.

It is impossible to deploy a spheroidal surface on a plane without folds and gaps. Therefore, the transition from the ellipsoid to the plane occurs with the help of cartographic projections by the mathematical method. There will be no folds and gaps, but the elements of the content of the map, will preserve the exact geographical position, will have some distortion within the contours, or in the ratio of areas.

Accordingly, the earth’s surface on the map has to be displayed not with the same decrease in all its parts, but distorted: to avoid distortion, the lines are drawn, and in places where folds should be formed, shortened. Thus, in different places on the map, the earth’s surface decreases at different times. This means that the scale on the map is not constant.

It is possible to represent a spheroidal earth surface on a plane in different ways, applying various cartographic projections and putting at the same time certain mathematical conditions to the received image.

In this case, under a certain condition, calculate the coordinates of the compare and contrast essay to buy points of intersection of meridians and parallels and draw a grid of meridians and parallels at these points, called a cartographic grid.

The cartographic grid is the basis for drawing all the other contents of the map. The maps reproduce objects and phenomena that take place on the earth’s surface, in nature, in social life and human activity. Some of the objects and phenomena we can observe in the field and conduct a topographic survey of their contours. Such objects include: hydrography, relief, soil cover, various structures, etc. There are objects observed with the help of special devices. These are climatic phenomena, phenomena of magnetic deviation, etc. Some phenomena are connected with the study of human life and activity by historical events.

The reflection of the earth’s surface is given with varying degrees of reduction depending on the purpose of a map. This raises the question of selecting the most significant features of the content for this map, in order to more accurately reflect the location of the phenomenon and its relationship with other phenomena.

All elements of the content of the map are displayed on it in the plan with the help of special symbols. Some symbols in their pattern resemble this object, others are not like him. The use of various symbols allows you to create maps that answer a number of questions, characterize one or more phenomena.

For example, climate maps show the distribution of precipitation, the direction of prevailing winds and other phenomena.

When displaying most objects give their contours, and in the middle of the contour are placed the accepted symbols. Thus, settlements are covered with hatching or painted blue, the soil and vegetation cover is marked with various icons.

If an object cannot be displayed on the scale of the map, it is used outside the scale symbols, but under certain conditions. For example, a railway sign drawn on a map, if measured in scale, will significantly exceed the width of the road in the field, but it must be placed so that its axis coincides with the actual position of the road axis. For individual objects (pipes, factories, columns, etc.) symbols are applied so that their base coincides with the actual position of the object. For maps of different scales and purposes develop their symbols.

Inscriptions of geographical and socio-economic elements on the map are also a special symbol, as not only indicate the name of an object, but also give sometimes quantitative and even qualitative characteristics.

Inscriptions of settlements, for example, can describe the name of the settlement, the number of inhabitants in them, the administrative significance and type of settlement. This is achieved by using fonts of different sizes and patterns. You can distinguish the navigable part of the river from the non-navigable, labeling these areas in different fonts. Symbols should be easy to read, easy to use, do not oversaturate the map and do not allocate more than necessary for its content.


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Crimean mountain system. Abstract

The Crimean mountain physical and geographical country is located in the south of the Crimean peninsula. It stretches along the northern coast of the Black Sea for 180 km from Cape Chersonese to the city of Feodosia. In the north, the mountain system borders the steppe zone, and in the south is washed by the Black Sea. The Crimean mountains are a folded-block system of the alpine geosynclinal zone

The formation of the Crimean folded region began in the Mesozoic era. In the Cenozoic, on the border of the Paleogene and Neogene periods, due to the alpine fold, the mountainous Crimea rose to a height of over 1500 m. Then there were erosive dismemberment of the southern slopes of the mountains and incision of river valleys. New uplifts in the Crimea were observed in the late Neogene – early Anthropogenic and were accompanied by significant faults.

The Crimean mountains consist of three parallel ridges – Main, Inner and Outer, which gradually decrease from south to north and extend from southwest to northeast. The main ridge is formed by Triassic and Jurassic shales, limestones, sandstones and conglomerates, the inner – Cretaceous and Paleogene limestones. Magmatic rocks, which cooled near the surface in the bowels of the earth, also take part in the construction of the mountainous Crimea. The outcrops of these hard rocks are formed by the exotic mountains of Ayu-Dag, Castel, etc.

As a result of limestone leaching, karst caves are very common in the Crimean Mountains (the longest Red Cave is 13.7 km). In addition to karst, weathering, water erosion, villages, and landslides are actively manifested in the mountains.

The Crimean mountainous country with a temperate continental climate covers the highest main ridge and foothills.