Among the external factors that had a strong influence are the following.
The difference is determined by the size of the accumulation, its rate.
Analyzing the patterns of the process of reproduction, Marx showed the theoretical possibility of realizing the entire social product under conditions of production proportions. However, according to Marx, this is a purely theoretical possibility, because the contradictions of capitalism are a constant source of industrial crises.
Violation of economic balance in society leads to exacerbation of not only economic but also social contradictions.
The third volume of "Capital". The process of capital movement, considered by Marx as the unity of the process of production and circulation, cannot give a complete picture of all forms of capital that ensure social reproduction. Marx therefore returns to the analysis of the process of capitalist production, taken in the unity of all its parties. He tries to find and show the forms that arise from the process of capital movement, which are manifested on the surface of economic phenomena due to the interaction of different capitals and competition between them. Volume III of "Capital", published in 1894, is devoted to these problems. entitled "The process of capitalist production, taken as a whole."
The whole preliminary analysis of capitalist production was based on the assumption that, on average, all the prices of goods sold are equal to their value. It follows that the capitalist must receive as much profit as added value. However, practice has shown that the mass of profit is not directly related to the amount of variable capital (the number of people employed in production), but depends on the size of all advanced capital and its organic structure. In addition, the size of profits is influenced by a number of economic and non-economic factors.
According to Marx, the factors that determine the rate of return are the rate of value added, the rate of capital turnover, the organic structure of capital, and so on. He pays special attention to the analysis of the impact of the organic structure of capital on changes in the rate of return, noting that with increasing fixed capital due to the introduction of scientific and technological progress, the rate of return tends to decrease due to increased cost. There is a conflict between the expansion of production and self-growth of value. This process is accompanied by a reduction in the number of people employed in production, ie a reduction in the living labor used and, consequently, the added value created. However, there are a number of opposing factors.
From the standpoint of value theory, Marx was able to explain why, when goods are sold at their value, with different organic structure and different speeds in different branches of production, capitalists receive the same rate of return on the same capital, due to which factors equalize the rate of return.
The third volume of "Capital" shows the mechanisms of equalization of the rate of return under the influence of the main factor – competition. Marx showed by theoretical example that as a result of intersectoral competition there is a transfer of capital to the industry that guarantees greater profits. Thus, such proportions in the distribution of capital between industries are provided that, regardless of their organic structure and speed of turnover, the same capital provides the same profit due to the redistribution of the mass of value added created in society.
The fourth volume of "Capital" – "Theories of Value Added" – was published in 1905-1910 pp. edited by K. Kautsky, to whom Engels bequeathed the publication of this work. This volume corresponds to that part of the "Economic Manuscripts 1861-1863 pp." that in it Marx tells the almost two-hundred-year history of the search for sources of added value by bourgeois political economy. Unlike "Critique of Political Economy" (another name for "Capital"), this part is an overview of the development of the theory and a commentary on attempts to analyze the mechanisms of capitalist production from the standpoint of circulation and the theory of value.
This paper examines the economic views of James Stewart with his systematization of the teachings topics for narrative speech of the mercantilists and the beginnings of physiocratic theory; William Petty, who founded the classical school; Francois Quesnay with his "Economic Table"; Adam Smith with an analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of his labor theory of value.
In particular, Marx analyzes David Ricardo’s theory, arguing that Ricardo’s followers vulgarized his views, thereby accelerating the disintegration of the classical school of political economy.
He criticizes the views of Carl Rodbertus and Thomas Malthus, James Mill and John McCulloch, who, although considered themselves followers of Ricardo, revised the labor theory of value.
Marx notes the emergence of proletarian economic theories, but criticizes their authors for simplistic approaches to explaining the essence of the class struggle, for not understanding the significance of Ricardo’s theory.
ThursdayThe second volume of Capital was, in fact, the first study on the history of economic thought. At the same time, it considered a number of important theoretical and economic problems: the issues of reproduction, crises, labor productivity, productive and unproductive labor, absolute and differential rent, profit, production prices. It is this volume that gives an idea of the enormous amount of material processed by Marx.
Thus, the fundamental work, which was conceived only as an economic substantiation of revolutionary theory, became a very profound economic study. Marx managed to solve the problems pointed out by classical political economy, but could not solve them from the standpoint of the theory of labor value. In "Capital" he reflected the dialectic of the development of capitalist society, analyzed comprehensively all that is essential in economic phenomena and the forms of their manifestation, and pointed out the genetic heredity of these forms. Marx sought and was able to determine the causes of economic imbalances and contradictions in the development of capitalism, based on theoretical and economic arguments, and thus demonstrated the possibilities of economic theory.
Economic interaction of Ukraine with developed countries. Abstract
The abstract describes the external economic environment of Ukraine
One of the main characteristics of the modern world economy is the progressive globalization of economic life. The core and main generator of this process are the developed countries of the world – leaders in the world economy. Within the club of developed countries, the unity of economic activity has reached a high degree, which is reflected in the strong interweaving of their markets at all levels. In recent decades, powerful trade and economic groups have emerged.
The economic interaction of these groups significantly changes the form of economic development of the modern world. The phenomenon of globalization of economic life is strengthening, when due to the growing integration ties the life of individual countries is strongly intertwined with the world economy and not only affects it to the extent of a particular country, but also feels its powerful influence, forcing each country to coordinate its economic policy. with general world trends and interests of partners. Ukraine at the present stage is significantly influenced by these processes.
Among the external factors that had a strong influence are the following.
The growth rate of the world economy in 1999 slowed down somewhat. According to preliminary data from the World Bank, real GDP growth in Western Europe is 3.6% (compared to 4.8 in 1998), in Central and Eastern Europe – 4.0% (1998 level), world growth – 2.3% (compared to 2.5 in 1998 ), developing countries 3.1 percent. (against 3.3 in 1998), countries with economies in transition – 0.9% (against -0.2 in 1998)
Among the main reasons for the decline in economic growth are:
declining economic development in Russia, rising oil prices, the effects of the regional crisis in Asia.
The financial and economic crisis, in turn, caused a crisis in commodity markets. Prices for most commodities dropped significantly, which inevitably affected Ukrainian export-oriented industry.
The situation of significant deterioration of the situation on the world markets of traditional export products of Ukraine has become real. Evidence of this is, in particular, the anti-dumping processes caused by the supply of Ukrainian metallurgical enterprises to the United States, Canada, Latin America, Western Europe and mostly resolved not in favor of the Ukrainian side. The same situation exists in the foreign markets of high-tech export goods, which for a long time are deprived of proper investment and stimulating effect of domestic demand.
It should be noted that in 2000 the trend of maintaining a positive balance in foreign trade in goods and services of Ukraine continued. Thus, in January-February 2000, the balance of foreign trade in goods and services was positive in the amount of 165.3 million dollars. with an improvement compared to January-February 1999 by 125.7 million dollars, or 4.2 times.
In early 2000, there was an improvement in the main markets for domestic metal products (Russia, Turkey, the Middle East), increasing demand and, consequently, the price level became the main factors influencing domestic exports. At the same time, the decrease in the supply of fittings is due to low demand for this product in the markets of Southeast Asia, in particular, China – the largest importer of Ukrainian long products.
Exports of metal products to African countries continue to increase – to a non-traditional market for exporters from Ukraine. In January 2000, about 112.4 thousand tons of metal products worth 18458.6 thousand USD were delivered. This exceeds last year’s figures by 15% and 17%, respectively.
Analyzing the statistics, we can assume that in 2000 the main markets will still be the Middle East and Southeast Asia. Deliveries of Ukrainian rolled products to Eastern Europe and the CIS will continue to increase. The markets of South America, the EU and the US are likely to be closed and severely restricted to Ukrainian exporters.
In order to achieve full integration into European markets, Ukraine seeks to become a full member of such a powerful political and economic group as the European Union, which will provide a number of economic benefits, including: